2014 Effects of mid-latitude westerlies on the paleoproductivity at the Atlantic margin of South Africa during the penultimate glacial cycle: evidence from coccolith Sr/Ca ratios[disponible en anglès]
2012, TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D: TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT - número/volum 17 - ISSN: 1361-9209 - Pàgines 442-450 - DOI dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2012.05.008
Tots els autors:
Joan-Manuel F. Mendoza, Jordi Oliver-Solà, Xavier Gabarrell, Joan Rieradevall, Alejandro Josa
This paper examines the relevance of incorporating comprehensive life-cycle environmental data into the design and management of pedestrian pavements to minimize the impact on the built environment. The overall primary energy demand and global warming potential of concrete, asphalt and granite sidewalks are assessed. A design with a long functional lifetime reduces its overall primary energy demand and global warming potential due to lower maintenance and repair requirements. However, long-lived construction solutions do not ensure a lower life-cycle primary energy demand and global warming potential than for shorter-lived designs; these values depend on the environmental suitability of the materials chosen for paving. Asphalt sidewalks reduce long-term global warming potential under exposure conditions where the functional lifetime of the pavements is less than 15 years. In places where it is known that a concrete sidewalk can have a life of at least 40 years, a concrete sidewalk is the best for minimizing both long-term primary energy demand and global warming potential. Granite sidewalks are the largest energy consumers and greenhouse gas contributors.