2014 Effects of mid-latitude westerlies on the paleoproductivity at the Atlantic margin of South Africa during the penultimate glacial cycle: evidence from coccolith Sr/Ca ratios[disponible en anglès]
2009, WATER RESOUR MANAGE. Doi: 10.1007/s11269-009-9515-1 - número/volum x - Pàgines 0-0 - DOI null
Tots els autors:
Núñez, M; Oliver-Solà, J; Rieradevall, J; Gabarrell, X.
This article focuses on studying the natural and artificial water flows of the
service sector from an industrial ecology perspective. The purpose is to determine, in
the area under study, the water consumption of the service sector and the most water
demanding services in global and relative terms, total water consumption per year
and liters per user per year (Lpu) respectively, as well as the existing and potential
water flow interrelations among service facilities to reduce their water consumption.
Finally we propose measures for water consumption minimization, recycling and
reusability based on the results of the diagnosis. The analyzed system is Montjuïc
Urban Park (Barcelona, Spain), where the economic activity is based on the service
sector (about 200 service facilities and no industrial activities). In the individual study
of services we found an average consumption of 75 Lpu, with a large range in the
water consumption by service types (between 17 and 156 Lpu), and between facilities
of the same service type (51 and 155 Lpu). These results indicate a high level and
low regulation of water consumption among the service facilities. In the study of the interrelations between the services we found that a high potential for hydrological
saving exists in the system (equivalent to 50% of the potable water inflow from
the supply network). The results indicate a lack of ecosystemic and synergic vision
in the service sector. Interrelations among water flows have to be established, by
means of rainwater collection and the reuse of water flows from swimming pools
and ornamental fountains. The article proposes the application of industrial ecology
methods to improve water management insideMontjuïc Urban Park and, in general,
within any system where the service sector is the main economic activity.
Keywords: Water flow accounting · Service sector · Urban system · Industrial ecology · Urban ecology.